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Anterior cruciate ligament injuries

Injuries towards the ACL are pretty common among athletes. ACL sprains are most common at the age of 15 and 45, primarily due to greater involvement in recreations. And occurs in people who perform activities pivoting, e.g.,( baseball, netball, soccer, European group handball, gymnastics, downhill skiing). This includes from moderate (such as, for example, minor tears/sprain) to severe (as soon as the ligament is wholly torn). Both contact and non-contact injuries can occur, although non-contact tear and ruptures are most common. A few research reports have shown that Females generally have increased ACL damage than men, between 2.4 and 9.7 times greater. It’s been proposed that this might result from a difference in physical conditioning, muscular strength, neuromuscular control. Other causes include variations in the pelvis and lower extremity alignment, increased looseness in ligaments, and estrogen effects on ligament properties.

Anterior cruciate ligament injuries


  • Changing direction quickly
  • Stopping abruptly
  • Slowing while running
  • Landing from a jump improperly
  • Direct collision or contact, like a soccer tackle


Signs and symptoms usually include:

  • A pop sound that is loud, a “popping” sensation into the leg
  • Severe failure and discomfort to carry on the task
  • Rapid inflammation
  • Loss in flexibility
  • A sense of instability or means that is”giving with weight-bearing

Mechanism of ACL injury

  • Typically, the ACL tears in a non-contact deceleration situation create a valgus injury that frequently occurs when the athlete lands on the leg quickly pivots in the opposite direction.
  • Hip internally rotated, adducted.
  • Knee near full extension
  • Tibia externally rotate
  • Foot everted and planted
  • Body decelerating
  • Combo of above leads to an apparent valgus collapse of the knee.

ACL Injury Prevention

Stretching: This is often a simple and easy way to minimize your risk for anterior cruciate ligament injuries or sprain. It means that the muscle tissue and ligaments of your leg remain flexible.

 Strengthen: One of the more effective ways to lessen your risk of ACL sprains is by strengthing the muscle tissue that helps your knee bones stronger. Workouts or exercises that focus on the hamstring muscles, thigh muscle tissue, and hip muscles can be the priority.

Practice Safe Maneuvers: Twisting, landing, and jumping can all completely lead to ACL damage when they’re not done correctly. Generally speaking, you want to straighten your knees whenever you jump and allow them to flex when you land. Avoid turning your knees while landing or jumping, as this could raise your danger. Additionally, it is beneficial to work with a balance to effectively assist your leg bones in handling sudden motions.


Treatment for anterior cruciate ligament injuries shall differ based upon the individual’s specific requirements. P.R.I.C.E injury treatment method is used initially for 48 – 72 hours right after the injury. Some young athletes in agility activities will most likely require surgery to go back to recreations properly.

Nonsurgical Treatment

Nonsurgical therapy is effective for clients that are senior or possess a low task level. If the stability of the knee joint is intact, your physician may suggest easy, nonsurgical choices.

Physical therapy: Whether your therapy involves surgery or not, rehabilitation plays a role in getting you back into your everyday activities. Physical therapy can help you regain knee strength and movement. The main priority is to return motion to the joint and surrounding muscles when you have surgery. That is accompanied by a strengthening program made to protect the affected ligament. The final stage of rehabilitation is focused on a functional return tailored for the athlete’s sport also whenever there is inflammation and swelling, rehabilitation is required. 

Bracing. Your medical professional might suggest a brace to safeguard your leg from instability and offer you crutches to keep you from putting weight on your knee or leg and protect your affected leg.

Surgical Treatment

Surgery to renovate an anterior cruciate ligament is done with an arthroscope using small incisions. Arthroscopic surgery is less invasive. The advantages of more minor invasive procedures are less discomfort from surgery, less time spent in a medical facility, and quicker recovery time.

Rebuilding the ligament. The most tear may not be sutured straight back together. The ligament must be reconstructed to fix the ACL and restore leg stability. Your physician will replace your torn ligament with a muscle graft. This graft will work as a scaffolding for the ligament that is new to grow on. Usually, these Graft was typically taken from the patellar tendon, which runs between the kneecap and shinbone—hamstring tendons at the thigh’s backside, which is a common graft source. Occasionally, a quadriceps tendon is used.

You can find out the pros and cons of all or any graft sources. It would be best to talk about graft choices with your orthopedic doctor, who determine which is best for you. As the restoration takes some time, it may be six months or higher before an athlete can return to recreations after surgery.


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